Districts of Odisha
Capital City: Bhubaneswar
Situated between 17° 45' N to 18° 40' N Latidudes and 81° 10' E to 82° 00' E Longitude at a height of 641" (feet) form the sea level, Malkangiri covers a landmass of 5791 sq.km.It is one of the border district of Orissa and touches the frontiers of both Andhra Pradesh and Chttisgarh. In the east, Malkangiri is bounded by Koraput, Vishakapattnam and East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh.On to its west, Malkangiri is bounded by Bastar district of Chatisgarh.Its the north is flanked by Koraput district and on to its south lie the East Godavari and Khamam district of Andhra Pradesh.The entire district is covered with hill tracts and dense forest cover.In fact 51.96% of the district is forest land only.It came into exisyence on 2nd October 1992 after being bifurcated from the erstwhile Koraput District .
Geography of Malkangiri
The district is divided into two distinct physical divisions.The eastern part is covered with steep Ghats,Platues,Valleys sparsely inhabited by primitive tribes like the Bondas,Koyas,Porajas and Didayis.The rest of the district is comparatively flat plain broken by a number of rocky wooded hills.Almost the whole of the district is a vast dense jungle.
Potteru,Saberi,Sileru,Kolab and Machhakunda are the main rivers flowing in the district. Most of the hills of the district hedge in the valley of the Machkunda throughout its sources,standing at about 1000 feet above the sea level. The plateau descends into the low-lying tracts of Malkangiri at about 900 feet height at the northen end and gradually falls away in the south-westerly direction to 150 feet high at Motu in the extreme south-western corner of the District. The highest point in the District is in the north-eastern corner, a few miles to the north of Duduma falls, at a height of 3,625. The rest of the District is a flat plain declining from an elevation of about 800 feet near Govindapalli in the north to under 400 feet in the extreme south. A number of rocky wooded hills break the monotony of the plain. A number of mountains and isolated hills such as the Tulasi at Mathili, the Shulia at Korukonda, the Chitrakuta at Chitrakonda, the Saptadhara at Govindapalli, the Vhima at Daniguda, the Danga at Tandiki, Deva Dangara or Goi at Malkangiri, the Akuru at Akuru and in the border the Golikonda at Bada Dural rise out of these tablelands. Black soil is predominant here.
The climate in the district is generally cold in the winter and hot in the summer with temperature ranging from 13°C to 47°C. The average annual rainfall is about 1700mm.Relative humadity is generally high especially in the monsoon and post-monsoon months. During the rainy season it becomes impassabaly swampy and heavy floods isolate it from the outer world.It lies within the malaria prone belt.
The soil formed by decomposition of forest leaves and grass is good for cultivation.Also sandy and clayey soils can be found in the lowlands.
History of Malkangiri can be traced to the prehistoric times.It finds reference even in the old mythological works like Ramayan where it has been refered to as Malyavantagiri.It is believed that the holy book of Ramayan was composed here on the bank of the Tamasa river. River the Tamasa that flows out of a cave has derived its name from a tribal word "TANSA", that means cave. The belief of a visit of Lord Ramachandra is further strengthen by the existance of "Sitakunda" the bath place of Godess Sita near Mudulipada.Similarly the place is believed to be the site where the Pandava princes are supposed to have spent their one year of exile in hiding (Agyantavasa).The Koya tribes still preserve and worship a sword that is supposed to be belonging to the pandavas. Also they celebrate the "Bhimudu Parva" during January in which "Bhima", the middle Pandava is worshiped. Kanamraju (Lord KRISHNA), Balaraju (ARJUNA) and Poturaju (BHIMA) are three famous Lords of this area, who are being worshiped by the people from time immemorial.
In the earlier days Malkangiri was known for beautiful Shiva temples.In fact the place derives its name from “Mallika Nagari”, the place of Lord Mallikeshwar.This Mallika Nagari gradually became Malkangiri in the modern times.One ancient Shiva Temple now submerged in the Chitrakonda Reservoir was known as Second Lingaraj of Orissa. This famous Shiva Temple was visited by Sri Chaitanya Deva during his visit to Nandapur. Existence of a number of Shiva Temples in and around Malkangiri signifies the fact that the ancient kings were shaiviets.
Malkangiri flourished as a hilly kingdom during the regin of the "Ganga Dynasty" It was known as "Kumbudiri" then. During the period from 1400 A.D. to 1872 A.D., this princely state was ruled by as many as twenty six kings. The entire state was divided into four MUTHAS namely Mout, Podia, Korukonda and Padmagiri. The head of each mutha was called "MUTHADAR". Each mutha was further divided into a number of villages of which "PEDA" was the head. The post of Muthadar and Peda were hereditary and recogined by the King of Malkangiri. Since there was always a fear of foreign invasion ,there was no permanent palace of the Kings. Temporary castles were built for them in several places of the state. Ruins of such a castle can be found over "RajaRani Hill" just in front of Bhairavi Temple of Malkangiri. An annual meeting was held on the "Vijaya Dashami" festival at "Sardar Basani Ambatota" of Deva Dangar. The meeting was attended by all the Muthadar and Pedas of the State. The King used to preside over this meeting and all important decisions were discussed in the meetings. The King delegated power to the Muthadars in this meetings to execute his decisions.
The last Queen of Malkangiri, Bangaru Devi ruled over here from 1855 A.D. to 1872 A.D. She along with her Koya Army faught bravely against the mighty Brithsh Army and was finally deposed in 1872 A.D. resulting a complete accession of Malkangiri State into Madras Presidency. In the year 1880 , Tama Dora, a brave Koya Youngman led the Koya troop, to defeat the British Police of Malkangiri and declared himself as the ruler of Podia and Motu.This incident is famously known as the "Koya Rebellion" .Colonel Macqoid of Hyderabad regiment marched with 100 men in retaliation but was utterly defeated by the Koya Army under the leadership of Tama Dora. The valiant efforts of the brave Youngman came to an end when he was brutally killed in the Rampa Forest near Mout on 28/07/1880 by the Military Police of Hyderabad.
After a long gap of 35 years the Koyas rose in rebellion once again under Alluri sitarama Raju who established a big Guerrila Troop and fought against the British Army. Chitrakonda and Kondakamberu were the Headquarters of Sitarama Raju He alongwith his large Koya troop raided the Raja Bamangi jail and released a freedom fighter Biraya Dora. In the month of September,1922, two British Army Officers namely Wrighter and Cobbard were killed and another officer Themoy Heir was seriously injured by him. In another incident in September, 1923; Malkangiri police station and Treasury were looted by Raju & his group. The group was culled in 1924 when Assam Rifles and Malabar Troops were sent to the forest of Malkangiri .The troops cornered Chitrakonda and attacked the Koya Army from all sides. A large number of Koya yound fighters were killed and many tribal families were tortured brutally by English Army. Finally A.Sitarama Raju was persuaded for a discussion with the Collector. Once into the meeting, he was caught by the troops and executed.
Balimela: Balimela block of Malkangiri District, is known fora Hydero-electric Project that has been established here jointly by the Government of Orissa and Andhra Pradesh. Surrounded by lush green forests this place is ideal for picnickers.
Bonda Hills: Bonda Hills of theKhoirputput Block of Malkangiri District are known as the living place of Bondas,the primitive tribal community in Malkangiri District. The place is surrounded on all sides by dense hilly forest. The Bondas to this date lead the life by hunting and collecting forest produce.Some of them can still be traced roaming without clothes.
Ammakunda: Ammakunda is one of the tourist places in Malkangiri District. This place is known for a natural water fall and subsequent flow of water forming a narrow gorge. The fishes found in that gorge are quite friendly to the human being and are believed to be the form of Lord Vishnu in " Matsya Avatar". Fishing is barred in this place and visitors enjoy their stay at this place by feeding the fishes. This area is surrounded by dense forest and small hillocks.
Motu: Motu is the southernmost point of the Malkangiri District situated at 150 feet from the sea level at the confluence of the rivers Sabari and Sileru. This Tahasil Headquarter attracts the tourists for it's beautiful "Jagannath Temple" and "Moogi Point"- the extreme south point on the bank of the confluence of the river Savari and Sileru. Difference in colour of the water of these two rivers can be marked even after confluence.
Satiguda Dam: Satiguda Dam is situated at a distance of 8 Kms. from Malkangiri Town. The Reservoir provides irrigation facility to the near by cultivable land throughout the year. The natural beauty of the Dam can be enjoyed in the early morning and evening hours. Boating facility is also available inside the Reservoir, which attracts visitors as well as the local people. Lord Shiva is being worshiped inside a cave near the Dam. Being surrounded by a large number of small hills this place is considered to be the most favourite picnic spot of the people.
Manyamkonda: Manyamkonda is one of the GPs of Kalimela Block and is situated at a distance of about 90 Kms from the District Headquarter. This is an important religious place in Malkangiri District as the famous God of the Malkangiri District (Lord Mahaprabhu) is worshiped at this place.Every alternate year the famous festival known as "Bada Yatra" of Malkangiri begins from this place to Malkangiri "Mauli Maa Temple". Three deities namely "Kanam Raju","Pota Raju" , "Bal Raju" who are respectively Lord Krishna and Pandav princes Bhima and Arjuna are worshiped in this festival. The scenic beauty of this place and the temple of the Lord Mahaprabhu arrtacts a large number of religious visitors to this place.
Hill Temples: Bhairavi Temple is situated at a distance of 3 Kms. from the Malkangiri Town. The deity is believed to have been be worshiped by the King of Malkangiri whose castle's remins are still found on the Raja Rani Hill just infront of Bhairavi temple. A famous Shiva Linga is found in the near by "Goi Hill". The height of the Shiva Linga is more that 6 feet and ot is claimed that it is gradually gaining heights.The famous "Tarini Temple" is situated at a distance of 2 Kms. from Malkangiri town on the way to Jeypore. The scenic beauty as well as the religious importance of this temple attracts people and piligrims alike.
|POLICE STATIONS||9||VIDHAN SABHA SEATS||2|
|BLOCKS||Malkanagiri sadar,Podia,Mathili,Koraput,Kurukunda,Balimela Kudamluguma|